Hindus in Indonesia, especially the island of Bali, are preparing to welcome the Galungan and Kuningan holy days of February 19 tomorrow. Happy celebrating Galungan. May God bless peace and a better life for us and the universe.
Galungan Holy Day has the meaning of celebrating the victory of virtue (dharma) against evil (adharma). It seems that we have to recall the philosophy of the Galungan Day itself. The hope is that the people can give this celebration a deeper meaning, so that they can become better individuals in the future.
Actually, why do Hindus celebrate Galungan Holy Day? What about mythology, philosophy, and how to interpret it? Millennials generation must know this!
1. The mythology of Galungan Holy Day, against a powerful giant named Mayadenawa who is famous for being arrogant and arrogant
Based on the developing Balinese Hindu mythology about the Holy Galungan Day, there is a powerful and feared giant named Mayadenawa. Because he wanted to be worshiped by the Balinese Hindu community, the giant Mayadenawa then prohibited all Balinese Hindus from coming to the temple and worshiping God. Over time the people became miserable and the world became unbalanced.
Seeing Mayadenawa’s attitude like that, Bhatara Indra was then sent by the gods to the world to destroy the giant evil Mayadenawa. Bhatara Indra brought a fighting force that was ready to attack the arrogant giant.
However, to kill Mayadenawa was not easy. Because the arrogant and arrogant giant is also magical. Bhatara Indra’s troops were overwhelmed. Mayadenawa is famous for being powerful because he can change form during his flight, so that several times he managed to trick Bhatara Indra.
Not only that. Mayadenawa even managed to poison a spring, which resulted in Bhatara Indra’s entire army dying while drinking the water. However, thanks to the supernatural power of Bhatara Indra, his keris was plugged into the ground, and a spring appeared which could revive his troops. That said, the spring was named Tirta Empul.
In the end, good will always triumph over evil. Although powerful, Mayadenawa was finally defeated. Mayadenawa pressed, he fled by stamping his feet sideways. The place became known as Tampak Siring. Finally Bhatara Indra was able to kill Mayadenawa.
Bhatara Indra’s victory in destroying Mayadenawa’s crimes is then celebrated as Galungan and Kuningan holidays, which are philosophically meaningful, celebrating the victory of virtue (Dharma) against evil (Adharma).
2. There are eight series that Hindus must pass during the Galungan and Kuningan celebrations
Galungan Holy Day goes through many series, which have high philosophical value. So the Galungan celebration must be accompanied by its meaning too. Here is the series:
- Tumpek Wariga. This ceremony is held at Saniscara (Saturday) Kliwon wuku Wariga. Tumpek Wariga or also known as Tumpek Bubuh falls 25 days before Galungan. At the time of Tumpek Wariga, the Balinese Hindu community honored plants that played a big role in human life and the universe. Apart from being a manifestation of love, in the plants being celebrated there is also a hope that they will soon bear fruit or produce. So that it can be used for the Galungan holiday ceremony.
- Javanese Sugihan. The Javanese show is held on Thursday Wage Sungsang or 6 days before the holy Galungan holiday. Sugihan Jawa comes from 2 words, namely Sugi and Jawa. Sugi means clean and holy. Meanwhile, Java comes from the word jaba which means outside. This means Javanese Sugihan as a day of cleansing or purification outside of humans, namely the universe (Bhuana Agung). In Sugihan Jawa, people make efforts to nyomia or neutralize everything negative that is in Bhuana Agung, symbolized by cleaning the pot and the house.
- Sugihan Bali . Sugihan Bali is held on Friday Kliwon Sungsang or 5 days to the holy Galungan holiday. The Balinese word here means guardian or inward. Sugihan Bali means purification or self-cleansing (Bhuana Alit). Self-purification is carried out by physically cleansing (bathing), and asking for holy water as a symbol of cleansing the spiritual body.
- Panyekeban. Panyekeban is held on Sunday Paing Wuku Dungulan, 3 days before Galungan. Nyekeb means contemplating or restraining oneself. Philosophically, on the day of Penyekeban people learn to refrain from doing things that are not justified by religion.
- Serving. Held Monday Pon Dungulan, 2 days before Galungan. Presentation comes from the word Saja which means truly. This serving day has a philosophical meaning to establish itself to celebrate Galungan. Self-control is getting higher ahead of Galungan.
- Containment. The detention fell on the day before Galungan, namely Tuesday Wage wuku Dungulan. Penampahan or Penampan comes from the word Nampa which means welcoming. This means that the day before, people must be ready to welcome Galungan day. The observation is marked with the making of penjor as an expression of gratitude to God Almighty. Besides making penjor, people also slaughter a pig to complement the ceremony. The slaughter of pigs also has a symbolic meaning of killing all animalistic passions that exist within humans.
- Galungan. Galungan is celebrated on Wednesday Kliwon Dungulan. This is the day of victory. The ceremony is carried out starting in the morning, starting from the prayer in each house to the temple in the neighborhood. On Galungan day, people look more inwardly, introspect themselves so that goodness can always be done throughout life.
- Umanis Galungan. There is still a series after Galungan called Umanis Galungan. The day after Galungan is used to visit relatives or recreation areas. This is to start a new, better step. If, for example, you have a previous problem, then when Umanis Galungan is used to apologize. In some areas in Bali, children will carry out the tradition of ngelawang at Umanis Galungan, which is believed to be able to expel all negative auras and bring out a positive aura.
3. The series of Galungan do not stop there. There are still other series for the next month, until the release of the penjor
The Galungan series still did not end. After Galungan, there is still another month of celebration, until it is declared complete with the releasing of the penjor. Here’s the series:
- Pemaridan Guru . Held on Saturday Pon Dungulan, 3 days after Galungan. The word Pemaridan Guru comes from the words Marid and Guru. Memarid means to move or beg. Meanwhile, the teacher is none other than Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa. On this day it is meant to ask for blessings from Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in his manifestation as Sang Hyang Siwa Guru.
- Repeat. Held on Sunday Wage Kuningan. Ulihan means to go home or come back. In this context what is meant is the day of the return of the gods and ancestors to heaven by leaving the blessings and gifts of long life.
- Great Pemacekan. Held Monday Kliwon Kuningan. Pemacekan comes from the word pacek which means steadfast. Pemacekan agung means the persistence of human faith.
- Kuningan holy day. Celebrated Saturday Kliwon Kuningan. People interpret it by attaching tamiang, kolem, and endong. Tamiang is a symbol of Lord Vishnu’s weapon because it resembles Chakra, Kolem is a symbol of the weapon of Lord Mahadeva, while Endong is a symbol of the bag of supplies used by our Gods and Ancestors when fighting against adharma. This means that humans always fortify themselves with faith and good things.
- Pegat Wakan Day. It will be held on Wednesday Kliwon Pahang, a month after Galungan. Today is the last series of Galungan and Kuningan celebrations. On this day, new people may pull out the penjor. The Penjor was burned and the ashes planted in the yard of the house.
4. Hopefully Hindus who celebrate Galungan can do self-introspection or mulat sarira
We know that the Galungan Day is interpreted as the victory of goodness (Dharma) against Adharma (evil). The meaning of Galungan is also stated in the lontar “Sundarigama” like this:
Buda Kliwon Dungulan Ngaran Galungan patitis ikang janyana samadhi, galloping maryakena sarwa byapaning idep.
Wednesday Kliwon Dungulan is called Galungan. Aim for spiritual unity in order to get a bright view to eliminate all confusion of thought.
Interpreting Galungan as a victory of dharma against adharma, does not have to go through a physical war situation. Victory here is defined as victory against all confusion of thought. So what you need to do to interpret Galungan Day is to fight selfishness and bad character in yourself.
At Galungan time, uniting spiritual strength in order to get clear thoughts and convictions is an attempt to win oneself from the ego. The union of the spiritual and the clear mind is a form of dharma in oneself.
Hopefully after this Galungan holiday celebration, Hindus will be more mulat sarira or introspective. He hopes that he can do better in the future, and his life will be more useful. Astungkara.